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The MCMC sampling was considered sufficient when the effective sampling size of each parameter was , 1993).The most recent common ancestor of Myrteae and the outgroup taxa (crown node of Myrteae) was constrained using a lognormal distribution with a median of 55·8 Mya (corresponding to the lower bound of the Eocene), lower quartile (2·5 %) of 54·94 Mya and superior quartile of (97·5 %) 61·9 Mya, achieved using an offset value of 54·8 Mya.The molecular datasets, nuclear and combined plastid regions, were then analysed independently and simultaneously.Phylogenetic reconstruction using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference was performed on all datasets.Two independent analyses, each of four chains, were conducted with 5 000 000 generations of Monte Carlo Markov chains (MCMCs) and a sampling frequency of 1000.

To encompass morphological and geographical variation of widely distributed species, multiple individuals were included for those taxa. Total DNA was further purified for long-term storage in the RBG Kew DNA and Tissue Collections by equilibrium centrifugation in caesium chloride–ethidium bromide gradients (1·55 g ml) followed by butanol extraction of ethidium bromide and dialysis to remove caesium chloride.Additionally, a likelihood approach, ‘geographic state speciation and extinction’, was used to estimate region- dependent rates of speciation, extinction and dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable areas (refugia) and unstable areas.Key Results Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that are polyphyletic, and the internal groupings recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters.Methods Fifty-three taxa were sampled out of the 120 species currently recognized, plus 40 outgroup taxa, for one nuclear marker (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers ().The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses.

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